Fiio X5 Portable Hi-Res Music Player

Fiio’s latest contribution to the world of sound and music came in the form of the X5 portable music player. Following on from the recent release of their limited edition portable amplifier, the E12DIY, the X5 is another statement from Fiio that they want to play at the high end of sound quality, even if the pricing is still only at the mid level (and for that we are thankful!)


  • Size:  67.6 x 114 x 15.6 mm
  • Weight:  195 g
  • Storage:  2 x micro SD (TF) card slots – max capacity 256Gb at time of launch
  • Line-out:  1.5 Vrms
  • Output impedance:  <0.26 ohms
  • Recommended headphone impedance:  16 – 300 ohms
  • Max output current:  >150 mA
  • Max output voltage:  8 V (peak-to-peak)
  • Battery life:  > 10 hours
  • Sample rates:  up to 192 kHz / 24 bit

There are plenty more specs available on the Fiio website (, but to me these are the key elements that show the general versatility of the X5. There are some further outstanding numbers such as crosstalk and signal-to-noise ratio, but there are different figures for the amped headphone out and the unamped line-out so I’ll let you look these up yourself to as not to overload everyone with numbers.

The X5 retails for around $400 and offers the same compatibility as other much more expensive players. However the question is whether it offers the same performance? I bought the X5 to replace my far more expensive RWAK100 so outstanding performance was a must and I haven’t been disappointed… for the most part.

To read the rest of the review, please head over to the new Passion for Sound site. It’s sexier and there’s plenty of great new content coming soon, but only on the new site. Hope to see you there!


Understanding MP3s (and other compressed music) – Part 3… Finale

Welcome to the final installment of my 3 part series of posts about the pros and cons of compressed audio. If you haven’t read from the beginning, it’d be a good idea. Here’s a link: Understanding MP3s (and other compressed music) – Part 1

By the end of Part 2 you hopefully have an understanding of the process of compression (i.e. removing sounds that we theoretically won’t hear) and also the impact that this removal has on the overall “picture” created by the sound. For this final part of the article, you need to keep this concept of a musical “picture” in mind because this final concept is all about the hidden magic within the picture, not the individual, identifiable details.


You might have heard of harmonics before. If you’ve played certain musical instruments (particularly stringed instruments), you might have even deliberately created pure harmonics. If you haven’t heard of harmonics, don’t worry – here’s a short explanation.

Anytime you play an instrument that uses a string or air to create sound (i.e. just about any instrument other than electronic synthesizers), you are creating harmonics. Harmonics are the sympathetic vibrations that occur along with the note that you’re creating. Have you ever run your finger around the rim of a glass to create a musical note? That’s the same concept. Your finger running on the edge of the glass creates vibrations. If you get the speed of your finger movements correct, the vibrations you create, match the natural vibration frequency of the glass. As a result, the whole glass vibrates together and forms a beautiful clear note. Different glasses will vibrate at different speeds of movement  and will create different notes as a result. This is the concept of harmonics.

If you were to walk up to a piano and strike the key known as “Middle C”, you would hear a note – just one single note, but that note will have a quality very different to the same note on another piano or on a violin. The reason for this is the creation of resonance and harmonics. To explain this, I’m going to talk about the note called “A” which is a few notes above “Middle C”. I’m using the “A” because it makes the maths easier.

If you now strike the “A” you’ll hear a single note once again. This time, the note will sound higher than the previous “C”. What’s actually happening though is that your ear is receiving vibrations in the ear and these vibrations are moving 440 times every second (440 Hz). However, there are also other vibrations going on and the majority of these vibrations are directly related to the 440 Hz we began with. As the “A” string inside the piano vibrates, it creates waves of vibration. The loudest of these move 440 times per second, but it also creates other waves moving 880 times, 1760 times, 3520 times per second, etc.

Every note created by an acoustic instrument naturally creates these harmonics which go up in doubling increments (i.e. like 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.) Old synthesizers sounded particularly fake because they didn’t recreate these harmonics and the output sounded flat and lifeless. Newer synthesizers create harmonics artificially and have come closer to the sound of the real thing, but there’s still a degree of difference created by the subtleties that can be created by acoustic instruments. A slight difference in strike pressure on a piano, plucking/strumming strength on a guitar or force of air through a trumpet can create a significantly different tone as a result of the different range of vibrations it creates. All of these subtleties are the “magic” that make music so special and exciting.

A quick note: this blog is not an anti electronic music. Electronic instruments (i.e. synthesizers, drum machines, etc.) can create amazing music which is impossible with traditional acoustic instruments. The discussion of acoustic versus electronic instruments is designed purely to illustrate the importance of keeping harmonics where they were originally intended/recorded.

Harmonics, Subtleties & Compression

In reading the section above, you might have wondered why you’ve never heard these harmonics. You might even choose to put on your favourite CD and try to listen for them. You can actually hear these harmonics if you listen carefully, but the key thing to recognise here is that we aren’t consciously aware of them in normal circumstances. The harmonics and subtleties happen “behind the scenes” of the music and are rarely noticed by the casual listener or anyone who is not actively listening for harmonics.

If you now think back to my previous discussion of compression and the removal of sounds that we theoretically don’t hear, you might see the connection. The first things be “compressed” (i.e. removed) are the harmonics and subtle, quiet sounds that create the finest details and tonal qualities of the music. To the casual ear, nothing seems to be missing, but play the same song compressed and uncompressed through good speakers and you might notice a difference that you can’t quite put your finger on. Here’s another visual example.

The following picture is a hi-resolution (1900 x 1200) desktop wallpaper image provided with Microsoft Windows 7. I’ve used it because it has a certain magic about it in terms of its depth and detail.

The next version of that image is at a lower resolution of 800 x 500 pixels (a bit like a lower bit-rate of compression).

Notice there’s a certain level of the “magic” missing from the second image? It’s hard to put a finger on exactly what’s missing, but the image isn’t as instantly captivating and engaging to the eye. It almost looks flatter somehow – less bright and alive.

Here’s one last version at 600 x 375 pixels, making it even lower resolution and stealing more of the “magic”.

Are you seeing a difference? Don’t worry if you’re not. Go back now and take a close look at the textures of the character’s face and the stitching on his costume. As the resolution drops, so does the detail. See it? That’s exactly what’s happening to your music.

Compressed Music in Real Life

Although it’s probably clear by now that my preference is always for uncompressed music (known as lossless music because no detail/information is lost), it’s not always practical. Understanding compression allows you to choose what suits your needs best. Here are some factors to consider when choosing your level of compression (or choosing no compression):

  • How much space do you have for your music on your computer, device hard drive, iPod, etc? You’ll need to use compression if your space is limited and you want to store a large number of tracks. Here you need to weigh up quality, quantity and space. You can consider increasing storage space, decreasing the quantity of tracks or increasing the compression (and therefore decreasing the quality of the music).
  • Where and how do you listen to your music? If you listen in noisy environments, at very low volume (i.e. background music only) or use low quality speakers/headphones then you might as well use slightly higher compression to maximise the quantity of tracks. The noisy environment issue can be overcome with in-ear earphones and noise cancelling earphones, but the other situations generally mean you can afford to sacrifice quality for quantity.
  • How much does it matter to you? After all, you’re the one doing the listening so if you’re happy with music at 128 kbps that’s all that matters. There’s no such thing as a right or wrong level of compression – it’s entirely up to you.

The best way to decide is actually quite simple. Take a well-recorded track (or two) that you really like and use your music player (iTunes, Windows Media Player, etc.) to compress it in different ways. Next, listen to the different versions on your favourite headphones and/or speakers and decide what you’re happy with. Way up the differences you noticed between the different levels of compression and think about how much space you have to store music and then make a decision.


Compression is a fantastic tool for portable audio and convenience, but if you have no significant space restrictions, I highly recommend sticking with lossless audio (either Apple Lossless Audio Codec – ALAC, Free Lossless Audio Codec – FLAC or Windows Media Audio 9.2 Lossless). You never know when you might upgrade your speakers or headphones and even if you can’t hear a difference now, you might be amazed at the benefits you get with that next pair of speakers or the next set of headphones! Don’t give up the magic of the music unless you absolutely have too!

Understanding MP3s (and other compressed music) – Part 1

Introduction & Context

As a music lover, I want to experience my music in its purest form. The true purest form is live performance, but we can’t always be at concerts so someone created recorded music. Then someone realised that you can’t take a record player or CD player wherever you go so they created compressed audio. There are many different compression formats including MP3, Microsoft’s WMA, Apple’s AAC, Sony’s ATRAC, and Ogg Vorbis. They all have different names and slightly different methods, but the overall concept is the same.

My aim in this series of posts is to explain what happens when you turn a CD into an MP3 or similar compressed format. In most cases, if you put a CD in your computer, PlayStation, Xbox, etc. and “rip” that music to a disc drive or portable music player, there’s a very good chance the music’s been compressed.

Just like it sounds, compressing music is all about squishing the same length of song into a smaller amount of data. A music track of about 3 minutes 30 seconds takes up between 20-30Mb as pure uncompressed audio. That same track can be compressed at “high” quality to about 7Mb. That’s a massive reduction, but you might be wondering what you’re losing to get the file to shrink by two thirds. Over the next few posts I’ll explain the process and the pros / cons of compression in a simple, real-world way so don’t worry if you’re not technically minded – you won’t need to be.

I should add that I’m not a fan of compressing music, but I recognise the need for it if we want portable music so the overall theme of these posts is to understand what you’re sacrificing when you choose compressed music. Once you know what you’re giving up, you can make an informed decision about what you’re willing to sacrifice in order to carry those extra songs. I hope the information is helpful and interesting.

Key Concepts

The Physics of Hearing: To understand the impact of compression you need to understand how we hear sound. The process begins with a sound source (like a musical instrument) that creates vibrations in the air.  These vibrations travel through the air until they hit our ears. Inside our ears is a thin layer of skin that we know as the ear drum. When the vibrations hit the ear drum, it is pushed around and vibrates in time with the incoming sound. Behind the ear drum are some small bones and our inner ear. The bones get pushed by the ear drum and they vibrate accordingly. As the bones vibrate, they continue to pass the vibrations to our inner ear. You can think of the bones in your ears like the string between two tin can telephones – they just carry a simple vibration.

The inner ear receives the vibrations next and the vibrations “tickle” a bunch of nerves which translate the vibration to a new type of signal for our brain. Don’t worry about the final signal to the brain though, just think about the vibrations until they hit the inner ear. These vibrations are chaotic. They aren’t clear and defined with separate little vibrations for the drums and another set of vibrations for the guitar and another set for the singer, etc. No, the vibrations all pile up and create a big mess of vibration.

A single, perfect note looks like this:

Sine Wave Graph

A graph of a perfect note

This type of vibration is impossible to create with a musical instrument (other than a synthesizer) or voice. Here’s the type of vibration created by instruments and voices:

Music Wave Graph

A graph of musical vibrations

Notice the mostly chaotic nature of the vibrations? There are definitely patterns there, but it’s a big mess of different vibrations. What this graph shows us is how our ear drum would move when receiving this music. The higher or lower each line is, the more our ear drum moves. Lines towards the top push our ear drum in. Lines towards the bottom pull our ear drum out. These movements are all tiny (if the music’s not too loud), but enough to send these crazy vibrations through to our ear nerves. The miracle of hearing is that our brain translates this crazy bunch of vibrations into beautiful melodies and harmonies.

Masking: The second key concept to understand is the concept of masking. Masking is the effect of a louder sound making it difficult to hear a quieter sound played at the exact same time. Think about having dinner in a busy restaurant. You might find it difficult to hear what your friends are saying because of the noise in the restaurant – that’s masking. The combined noise of everyone else’s conversations are masking the voice of your friend across the table.

When some clever bunnies wanted to create a way to store music on computers and iPods (or similar devices) they needed to take some data out of our music. The only data in our music is sound, so they had to find a way to take some sounds out of the music. Sounds tricky, yes? That’s where masking comes into play.

Studies showed that people don’t notice when certain individual sounds are removed from the overall musical landscape. In basic terms, if two sounds occur simultaneously, the quieter one can be removed and we don’t really notice. That’s a slight over-simplification, but it sums up the concept. There are very complex mathematical algorithms and formulas that help determine what sounds will and won’t be missed. I don’t even pretend to fully understand those algorithms so I won’t try to explain it. It also doesn’t really matter how the maths works because the key information to understand is that compression involves removing small pieces of the music that you won’t miss (in theory).

End of Part 1

That’s the end of the first section. Hopefully now you understand how we hear and how masking works. In Part 2 I’ll explain how that knowledge applies to compress sound and how it affects what we hear after the compression is done.

Apple iPhone Earphones (included in retail package)

Standard earphones as provided with the iPhone 3GS

Standard earphones as provided with the iPhone 3GS

Reference Review: this review is only provided as a reference. By looking at my comments and thoughts about a product you are familiar with, you can better gauge how my tastes match yours. I hope it helps.

This review is for the standard earphones provided with the Apple iPhone 3GS. These headphones include a microphone for phone calls, but I won’t be referring to that at all – this is all about the sound from the earbuds. As with all earbud reviews, I tested these earphones with the foam socks on for the sake of comfort.

The first impression of the iPhone Earphones in one word is “muffled”. The top end disappears into a muddy nothingness and lacks detail and clarity. The bass is OK and the vocals are clear and forward. The vocal prominence probably makes sense for a telephone headset and it doesn’t hurt the sound style at all. Here are some specific ratings:


Attack: These earphones have only a moderate attack. There is a bit of punch, but it’s not as potent as it could be. At a comfortable, moderate volume you can feel a little bit of the bass as it hits your eardrum, but it’s not “punchy”. As a result, the bass lacks definition and can get really muddy.

Rating: 4.5 / 10

Mass: Similar to the attack in the bass, there is some mass or body behind it, but it’s not as solid as it could be. Listening to “Whatever Lola Wants”, there’s a definite presence in the bass, but it’s not as full as it should be.

Rating: 5 / 10

Vocals / Mids

The vocals and mids are the most pronounced element of the sound signature for these earphones, but the upper end of vocals trails off into the muddiness of the treble. The result is a smooth and easy-to-listen-to sound, but a definite lack in clarity and detail. A lack of clarity and detail means a lack of excitement and that probably sums up the iPhone earphones… unexciting, but ok.

Rating: 5.5 / 10


You’ve probably already gathered that detail is not the strong point for the iPhone earphones. They are muddy at the top and muddy at the bottom. There’s no harshness, which is nice, but there’s no excitement either. They’re bland and a bit mushy. Listening to “Cheers Darlin'” you can hear parts of the very fine background accompaniment, but not the full picture. It sounds like an electronic sound rather than strings played col legno (where the wood of the bow is used to hit the strings and create a percussive sound). The iPhone earphones provide a solid wall of sound with no major gaps, but you can’t hear the individual bricks (so to speak).

Rating: 4 / 10


The staging for these earphones is quite narrow and not particularly well defined. This is largely due to the muddy top-end which just can’t give enough cues to our ears to define the placement of each instrument. There is some perception of separation, but it’s not wide and clearly defined like higher quality earphones.

Rating: 2.5 / 10

Note: Although I haven’t written it yet, I do plan to share more about how we hear sound and how different elements of sound reproduction, recordings and compression affect our perception of the sound. Check under Categories for more information and let me know via the comments section if you want to know something specific.


As you’d expect for a standard inclusion telephone earphone, these don’t set the audio world on fire, but they are better than many other included earphones. You’re probably only reading this as a reference to better understand my reviews of devices you’d actually buy so I’ll cut to the chase. These earphones don’t make me want to clean out my ears from muddiness or plug my ears with cotton woll from harshness. The sound is all a bit soft around the edges, but it’s bearable and easy to listen to if you’re not listening critically.

Rating: 4.5 / 10